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Veteran Hoplite of Hegemonia.
Group: Hegemonia Developer
Member No.: 8
Joined: 26-February 06
To help you,Sparta never be conquered by Macedonians,what i mean?
The story goes like that,Agis ii revive the Lycourgos laws and than Sparta was coming back to his original structure of society it was,it was starting condrol again Lacony and some lands of Messinia and Arcadia including Tegea.The city was a 1st quality militery power again in Greece atfer that was many conflicts inside the state of Sparta Kleomenis take advange of the situation and become king of Sparta he reorganise the army in a point that Sparta can gather a large army he liberated many helots and give them almost full rights in the state of Sparta,the king of Pylos was most dislike from his people they wanted him "down"and so they wanted Sparta to gain condrol over them but they king asked help from Macedonians provoke them that the Spartans will do a campaign against Macedonians And so the Macedonian army came to Pelloponissos to fight with Spartan army,the Macedonians was about 20000-25000 strong Spartans was 10000-15000 with liberated helots and slaves the actually numper of the Spartan army omioi,perioikoi,skiritais,tegeans was about 8000 so only the 8000 from the 15000 total was profesionalist in batle to fight with the profesional army of 20-25000 soldiers of Macedon.
Sparta lost the batle but the casualtys of both armys was so big that the Macedonians after one week live Pelloponissos.This batle was the reason why the Macedonians fight Romans in Pydnos with only 10000 soldiers cause after that batle Macedon never recover the numper of army that it was in the first place.
Anyway Sparta recovered again the state that it was and maked and stand against the Romans.
Member No.: 298
Joined: 12-June 07
Alright so a quick overview of Spartan history:
1. Dorian invasions and Sparta settled
2. Spartas rise in power and wars against Messenia, Argos, and Arcadia
3. Sparta becomes supreme power in the Peloponnese and all of Greece
4. Sparta plays a leading role in the Persian Wars
5. Sparta watches as power is transferred to Athens and the Delian League because of problems at home that distracted them (Helot revolt + earthquake)
6. Tension between Sparta and Athens because of Athens involvment in Peloponnesian affairs and Athens growing power
7. First Peloponnesian War
8. Second Peloponnesian War. Athens is crushed and Persia becomes largely involved in Greek affairs because of supporting Sparta with funds for the war. A notable event is the surrender of a Spartan garrison on the island of Spacteria. This is the first time Spartans had ever surrendered and not fought to the death.
9. Sparta is again supreme and carries on a war with Persia in which Spartans fight in Asia Minor.
10. Agesilaus II efforts in Asia Minor fail and Spartan forces are withdrawn. Without Persian funds Spartas navy crumbles and is finally crushed in a battle with the Persian navy. Sparta ceases to exist as a maritime power.
11. Opposition to Spartan rule is growing in Greece and Sparta concludes a peace with Persia under which they give all Greek cities in Asia Minor to Persia in return for the freedom of all other Greek cities.
12. Thebes refuses to recognize the independece of the cities in its hegemony and this leads to a war with Sparta.
13. Sparta dissolves the Olythinc Confederation after appeals by other Greek cities and when a peace conference was called Thebes again refused to free their dependent cities.
14. Sparta sends an expedition against Thebes and it concludes with the Spartan army being decisivly crushed at the Battle of Leuctra. This is the worst defeat Sparta has ever suffered and the first time a Spartan army has been defeated in pitched phalanx battle. Power immediatly transfers from Sparta to Thebes.
15. Thebes launches four expeditions into Laconia and frees Messenia and builds a new Arcadian capital. Sparta narrowly escapes capture each time and is fighting just to stay alive. Thebes again defeats a combined Spartan allied force at Mantinea but the death of Thebes leading general reduces their power and the Theban empire quickly breaks up. Laconia itself has been devastated by the war with Thebes.
16. After the breakup, Sparta is in no condition to regain its supremacy and is barely able to survive itself as it lives on a border with the now free Messenia and a strengthened Arcadia.
17. Thebes draws itself into a war with Phocis, in which Thebes appeals to help from Macedon. Macedon answers therefore drawing Macedon into Greek affairs for the first time. This would have a signifigant impact on Sparta.
18. Macedon conquered Thessaly and controlled everything north of Thermoplyae, Phillip bribed Greek politians and therfore set himself as a favorite in every Greek city. Athens provided the main resistance to his advance
19. Thebes and Athens struck an alliance in 339 BC and as Phillip advanced into Greece he defeated this alliance at Chaenorea. No Spartans fought on the field.
20. Phillip organized the Greek cities into the League of Corinth and announced his plans to invade Persia and free the Greek cities of Asia Minor. Sparta was not part of this league and Phillip decided to leave Sparta alone then try to conquer it. Sparta still remained a free city, although still very weak.
21. Phillip was assassinated and Alexander the Great took over with plans of invading Persia as his father had wanted. While Alexander was campaigning in Thrace the League of Corinth rebelled. Sparta did not take part in this rebellion as they were not even officially part of the League. Alexander crushed the rebellion and razed Thebes to the ground.
22. In 331 BC the Spartans revolted and were crushed by Alexanders regent Antipater at Megalopolis. Agis III led this rebellion. Sparta was still not conquered, again just too weak to present further resistance.
23. Alexander died in 323 BC and his kingdom splintered into numerous warring factions. Macedon fell to Cassander who mastered most of Greece but his power was challenged by Antigonus, ruler of Anatolia, who promised the Greeks their independence if they supported him against Cassander. This led to successful uprisings against Cassander local rulers and in 307 BC Antigonus son, Demetrius, took Athens and restores its democratic political system. Sparta builds a wall around it for the first time in its history towards the end of the 4th century BC
24. In 301 BC an alliance of Cassander and other Hellenistic rulers defeated Antigonus at the Battle of Ipsus, ending his challenge. Sparta took no part in these events and was left alone for the most part.
25. Cassander died in 298 BC and Demetrius seized the Macedonian throne and most of Greece.
26. In 294 BC Sparta again revolted against Macedonian rule this time led by Archidamus IV. This revolt was also crushed by Demetrius, yet again Sparta was not conquered, just left alone to try and again bring itself out of a state of weakness.
27. Rule of the Macedonian throne passed to Antigonus II in 280 BC. Antigonus II became embroiled in numerous wars, including wars with the leader of Epirus, Pyrrhus. Pyrrhus had dreams of conquering Macedon, including Greece. In 272 BC A Spartan named Cleonymus wanted to seize power in Sparta and asked Pyrrhus for help. Pyrrhus agreed and invaded Laconia and attacked Sparta itself. Although weakened, Sparta was not dead and defended their city. Sparta had not yet ever been conquered or occupied.
28. Athens, Rhodes, Pergumum and other minor cities form the Aeotlian League as a resistance to Macedonian rule. Sparta doesn't take part in this league.
29. In 267 BC Ptolemy II, leader of the Ptolemaic Empire, persuaded the Greeks to revolt against Macedonian rule in what is known as the Cgremonidian War. Of course Sparta didn't participate in this war adn the cities were defeated and Athens was conquered and lost her democratic institutions. The Aeotolian League was restricted to the Peloponnese.
30. In 245 BC Thebes became part of the Aetolian League. This addition swayed the league into becoming a Macedonian ally.
31. In 244 BC an Aetolian League army invaded Laconia and although they didn't attack or conquer the city of Sparta itself, they ravaged Laconia (since the Spartans were helpless to defend their land) and again left Sparta weak and barely hanging on to their independence.
32. In 239 BC Antigonus II died leaving his son Demetrius II as king. Antigonus II death saw the revolt of the Achaean League (different from the Aetolian League). This revolt was successful and the Achaeans were independent and in control of most of Southern Greece (except Sparta). Athens also remained seperate of this rebellion and conflict.
33. Demetrius II died in 229 BC leaving a child, Phillip V, behind and Antigonus Doson as Regent.
34. Cleomenes III and Agis IV had been reinstating the traditional way of Spartan life and brought back the old Lycurgian Laws. Therefore Sparta had regained a considerable amount of strength and was now a power to be reckoned with.
35. Sparta remained hostile to the Achaeans and in 227 BC Cleomenes III invaded Achaea and seized control of the league. The Achaeans perferred Macedonian rule to Spartan rule and appealed to Macedon for help, which they did.
36. In 222 BC Antigonus Doson defeated the Spartans at the Battle of Sellasia and annexed Sparta. This was the first time Sparta had ever been conquered and occupied. Agis IV was assassinated and Cleomenes III died in exile. Their reign saw the end of Spartan independence, the end of the dual kingship government, and the last time Spartan would be a regional power.
37. Phillip V took the Macedonian throne in 221 BC when Doson died. He made peace with the Greek cities in 217 BC and controlled them all except for Athens, Rhodes, and Pergumum (he also controlled Sparta)
38. After the Battle of Sellasia, a series of internal revolts took place in Sparta where a number of tyrants began to take power. Sparta was still loosely controlled by Macedon.
39. In 215 BC Phillip V struck an alliance with Carthage, Rome's enemy, which now brought Rome into Greek affairs for the first time. Rome then lured the Achaean cities, Rhodes, and Pergumum away from their Macedonian loyalties. The first Macedonian War broke out in 212 BC and ended with neither Rome nor Macedon gaining a complete victory in 205 BC. But Macedon was now an enemy of Rome.
40. In 206 BC the tyrant Nabis took control of Sparta and foreseeing the danger with Rome, gathered and army and fortified Sparta for the impending struggle.
41. Nabis signed a peace treaty with Rome in 205 BC and in 201 BC attacked Messene, it's old territory. Sparta regained Messene but was later defeated by Philopoemen and the Achaean League and had to abandon Messene.
42. In 202 BC Rome defeated Carthage and was now free to turn it's attention to Macedon. In 198 BC the Second Macedonian War broke out and Phillip V was decisively beaten in 197 BC. Besides Macedon having to become a Roman ally and surrendering his fleet, Rome left Macedon alone.
43. In 196 BC at the Isthmian Games Rome declared all the Greek cities were free, which was a lie. Rome organized the Greek cities into a league which Rome controlled and began to replace their democracies with pro Roman governments.
44. During the Second Macedonian War, Phillip V strucka deal with Nabis. In return for abandoning their Roman alliance and coming to the Macedonian side, Phillip V would give Nabis Argos. Nabis happily accepted.
45. As Nabis realized the war was going bad for the Macedonians, he traded sides and again struck a deal with the Romans. Nabis sent troops to help the Romans and in return for their assistance during the war, Rome recognized Sparta's possession of Argos after the war.
46. Sparta quickly rose in power and the Achaean League began to fear Sparta, it was also angry that one of its members was under Spartan control and pleaded with Rome for help. Rome called a council of the Greek powers and most of them wanted war with Sparta. As Rome was also worried about Sparta's growing power (they didn't want anyone causing problems when they invaded the east) the Romans agreed.
47. The Romans sent an ultimatum to Nabis saying to surrender Argos to the Achaean League or face war. Nabis flatly refused and in 195 BC Roman procounsal Quincius Flaminius invaded Laconia with Roman and Greek allied forces
48. The Romans quickly conquered the Spartan seaport of Gythium adn layed siege to Sparta. Although the Spartan fought bravely and held the Romans for a while, Nabis eventually surrendered the city. Sparta was now controlled by Rome and Argos was once again an Achaean League member.
49. Sparta had lost all its land possessions, it's seaport, it's navy, and all its former Cretan allies. But Nabis still rebuilt the Spartan army and navy and in 192 BC besieged and recaptured the Spartan seaport of Gythium. The Achaean League appealed to Rome for help and sent an army and navy under Philopoemen to engage the Spartans. Rome sent a naval force and an embassy to talk to the Spartans.
50. Before the Romans arrived the Acheans attacked the Spartans on land and sea and failed in both efforts. Philopoemen retreated to Tegea and reentered Laconia to try again. This time they beat the Spartans and ravaged Laconia for 30 days unopposed while the Spartans retired behind their city walls.
51. Flaminius arrived and convinced Philopoemen not to take Sparta. Nabis surrendered under the same terms as before
52. Sparta was weak once again and they turned to the Aetolian League for help. The Aetolian League wanted Rome to get out of Greece as quickly as possible and provided Nabis with the troops he requested but the Aetolians had other plans. While Nabis was drilling his army the Aetolian commander assassinated him. This was followed by an Aetolian attempt to take the city as they looted and captured the palace but the citizens of Sparta rallied and routed the Aetolians out of their city.
53. With Sparta in turmoil Philopoemen entered the city and took over. Sparta was forced to become a member of the Achaean League and although they were allowed to retain their laws their warrior ethos were abolished.
54. Sparta fuffered from severe economic and political problems and was deprived of a seaport. Out of desperation they attacked and captured the city of Las. The Achaean League saw this as a reason to end Spartan independance at once and Philopoemen invaded northern Laconia in 188 BC. He retook Las and again captured Sparta, who had withdrawn from the league. The walls around Sparta were demolished and the Spartan laws abolished. Achean law was introduced and Sparta was now completely helpless and dependent on the Achean powers.
55. Rome became a dominant, permenant power in the Greece world. Phillip V died in 179 BC and his son Perseus took the throne. Perseus had the dream of reuniting the Greeks under one independant banner although Macedon was too weak to do this. Pergumum eventually persuaded Rome that Macedon was a threat to Rome.
56. In 171 BC Rome declared war on Macedon and although Perseus held out for three years, he was crushed in 168 BC and Macedon was split up into four parts. In 149 BC the Macedonians revolted. This uprising was crushed in 148 BC and Macedon became a Roman province.
57. Rome now demanded that the Achaean League dissolve. Of course they refused and declared war on Rome. Rome crushed them at Corinth and razed the city to the ground. Sparta took no part in this war as they were a very unwilling member of the Achaean League.
58. In 146 BC the Greek peninsula became a Roman protectorate and all cities except for Sparta and Athens had Roman rule and taxation imposed on them. (Sparta and Athens were still controlled by the Romans but they were able to keep their own local governments.) Under this rule the Spartans were allowed to revert back to their old Lycurgan foundation although it was a sahdow of its former self.
59. By 133 BC Rome controlled all of the former Greek lands including Asia Minor
60. The Spartans took no part in the Greek Pontic rebellion against Rome in 88 BC and was actually a favorite Roman tourist mark and a strong Roman ally in Greece.
61. Although ending a lot sooner in Greece, the rebellion was put down in 65 BC
62. In 27 BC Greece was annexed into the Province of Achaea by the Roman emporer Augustus.
63. Greece fell into a long period of peace and prosperity. Sparta also shared this prosperity but was never a power like she used to be.
64. In 67 AD the Roman emporer Nero visited the Isthmaic Games and declared the Greeks free the same as Flaminius had over 200 years previous. This of course was just symbolic and the Greek province of Achaea was firmly under Roman rule.
65. Starting in the year 161 AD, Roman emporers began recruiting Spartan men for military actions against the Parthians in Asia. Sparta had not been involved in any major fighting since 188 BC
66. During the second and third centuries Roman emporers beagn to split up the province of achaea into other provinces and prefectures. Sparta remained in the province of Achaea.
67. During the reign of Theodosius I (379-395 AD) Greece faced invasions from the Goths and Vandals. There have been rumors of a Spartan phalanx engaging and defeating a Gothic raiding party. If this was true it was Sparta's last notable victory. Laconia was eventually overrun by Goths and other barbarians.
68. In 396 AD Alaric I of the Visigoths destroyed the city of Sparta. Alaric was driven out of Southern Greece by the Roman Regent Stilicho around 397 AD.
69. Sparta still existed in a weak poor state and played no key role in the Byzantine Empire's existance. It was just about completely ignored.
70.Around the end of the 7th century (about 670 AD) the Danube frontier of the Byzantine empire broke and the Slavic tribes poured into the Balkan peninsula. The Peloponnese was taken brutally and by force and this included Sparta.
71. Not only did the Slavs take the peloponnese but they settled there. This could be considered the end of ancient Spartan territorial ownage since all the Slavs took they reduced to slavery or outright exterminated. Any Spartans left lived an isolated existance.
72. In 680 AD, the Byzantine forces sent to destroy the scattered Slavic settlements were defeated. Greece would remain in the hands of the Slavic peoples.
73. In 681 AD Constantine IV signed a treaty with the Slavic khan and a new Bulgarian state controlled Greece and the Slavic tribes in Greece
74. In 687/88 Justinian II led an expedition to clear Greece of the Slavic tribes which was met with partial success. He retook a little bit of eastern Greece and Sparta was not part of the lands that Justinian II would recover. This expedition was the only one that would occur in Greece for a long time.
75. Simeon I was the next Byzantine Emporer that tried to retake Greece in 894. His campaign ended in complete failure in 896. Simeon I invaded Thrace again in 912 and this time his campaign was successful. An expedition into Southern Greece in 917 was a disaster and left the Bulgarians free to ravage Southern Greece up too Corinth. Thrace was recaptured from the Byzantines in 923/4 and in 927 the Bulgarians laid siege to Constantinople. Nothing further occured until Basil II reign in 976
76. Basil II came to the throne in 976 and made the Bulgars an annual target for the Byzantine Army. The Bulgars were completely defeated at the Battle of Kheidon in 1014 AD.
77. In 1018 AD the Bulgars surrendered and Basil II had restored the Danube frontier and border. What was left of Sparta and the Spartans were once again reincorporated into the Byzantine Empire.
THE LACEDAEMONIANS CHOOSE TO DIE
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